What are the 2 main causes of anorexia?

The causes of anorexia nervosa are complex and multifaceted. It is likely that a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disorder. Here are some of the main factors that may play a role:

  1. Genetics: Research suggests that there may be a genetic predisposition to developing anorexia nervosa. Individuals with a family history of eating disorders are at a higher risk of developing the condition. Certain genetic factors may influence brain chemistry, appetite regulation, and body image perception, making some individuals more susceptible to developing anorexia.
  2. Biological factors: There are certain biological factors that can contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa. Changes in neurotransmitter levels, particularly serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, have been observed in individuals with the disorder. Hormonal imbalances, such as disruptions in the levels of leptin and ghrelin, which regulate appetite and satiety, may also play a role.
  3. Psychological factors: Psychological factors are significant contributors to anorexia nervosa. Low self-esteem, perfectionism, high levels of anxiety, and a tendency toward obsessive-compulsive traits are commonly associated with the disorder. People with anorexia may use extreme control over their food and weight as a way to cope with underlying emotional issues or to gain a sense of achievement and self-worth.
  4. Sociocultural factors: Societal and cultural influences play a role in the development of anorexia nervosa. Societal pressures to attain a certain body ideal, which often emphasizes thinness, can contribute to body dissatisfaction and a drive for extreme weight loss. Media portrayal of unrealistic beauty standards, peer pressure, and cultural norms surrounding body image can all contribute to the development of disordered eating patterns.
  5. Environmental factors: Certain environmental factors can contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa. These include a history of childhood trauma, dysfunctional family dynamics, critical or perfectionistic parenting styles, and a history of being teased or bullied about body shape or weight. Traumatic life events, such as physical or sexual abuse, can also increase the risk of developing the disorder.
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It’s important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop anorexia nervosa, and the specific combination of factors can vary from person to person. The interplay between genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors is complex, and further research is needed to better understand the causes of anorexia nervosa.