What causes of anal cancer?

The exact cause of anal cancer is not fully understood, but certain risk factors have been identified. The development of anal cancer is often associated with a persistent infection of high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Other risk factors for anal cancer include:

  1. HPV infection: Persistent infection with high-risk strains of HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, is considered the most significant risk factor for anal cancer. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection, and engaging in receptive anal intercourse increases the risk of acquiring the virus. HPV infection can lead to cellular changes in the anal canal that may progress to cancer over time.
  2. Weakened immune system: People with a weakened immune system have a higher risk of developing anal cancer. This includes individuals with HIV/AIDS, those who have undergone organ transplantation and are taking immunosuppressive medications, or those with certain inherited immune disorders.
  3. Smoking: Cigarette smoking has been associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. Chemicals found in tobacco smoke may contribute to the development of cancerous changes in the anal tissues.
  4. Age and gender: Anal cancer is more common in older adults, with the risk increasing with age. It also tends to affect women more frequently than men.
  5. History of other cancers: Individuals who have had other types of cancers, such as cervical, vaginal, or vulvar cancer, may have an increased risk of developing anal cancer.
  6. Sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections: Engaging in receptive anal intercourse, having multiple sexual partners, or having a history of sexually transmitted infections may increase the risk of anal cancer.
People Are Reading:  What are the signs of anal cancer?

It’s important to note that having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that an individual will develop anal cancer. Many people with these risk factors never develop the disease, while others without apparent risk factors may still develop anal cancer. Regular screenings, early detection, and managing risk factors can help reduce the chances of developing anal cancer.